What is a Minority IPO?

A minority IPO, also called a partial IPO, is a type of initial public offering (IPO) in which a parent company partially divests of one of its subsidiaries.

Unlike a traditional derivative transactionminority IPOs involve the parent company retaining share of control in the newly listed subsidiary.

Key points to remember

  • A minority IPO is a type of derivative transaction in which a parent company sells a non-controlling interest in one or more of its subsidiaries.
  • It is often used by conglomerates who feel like undervalued by investors.
  • Minority IPOs can provide more detailed financial reports and improve liquidity for investors.

How Minority IPOs Work

Minority IPO transactions can be an effective way to parent companies obtain more favorable valuations when they believe that some of their subsidiary company companies are chronically undervalued by the investment community. This situation is known to occur with respect to large conglomerates such as General Electric (GE) or Berkshire Hathaway (BRK.B), which are home to several distinct and complex business activities. In such cases, investors and analysts may find it difficult to understand the intricacies of the various activities in the parent company’s portfolio, leading to certain subsidiaries being misunderstood or overlooked.

List of these subsidiaries as distinct listed on the stock exchange companies often results in a richer valuation of the spin-off company than it was before its separation from the parent company. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the financial statements of the newly separated company provide greater clarity for investment analysts compared to the consolidated financial statements produced by the parent company. Similarly, investors may be attracted to the specific business model of the new company without necessarily being interested in the many other activities in the holding’s portfolio.

Depending on how the parent company first acquired the subsidiary, the minority IPO can also be used as a way to prevent the previous owner from regaining control of the subsidiary. For example, if the parent company acquired the subsidiary through a merger or acquisition, the former owner may have an interest in regaining control. In these circumstances, a minority IPO structure could be used as part of a strategy to prevent this takeover to occur.

Example of a Minority IPO

XYZ Corporation is a large holding company that owns a diversified portfolio companies. One of its subsidiaries, ABC Technologies, recently caught the attention of the media due to a major product innovation.

At its most recent annual meetingseveral shareholders of XYZ have expressed concern that XYZ market capitalization did not reflect the true value of this promising subsidiary. They argued that this was likely due to XYZ’s complex consolidated financial statements, which do not give investors and analysts a clear view of the rapid business improvements occurring within ABC.

By separating ABC through a minority IPO transaction, these shareholders argued that the sum of the two companies’ market valuations would most likely be greater than the current market valuation of XYZ. Moreover, the minority IPO transaction would not require XYZ management to relinquish control of ABC, as the transaction would only involve the sale of a minority – or “non-controlling” – percentage. shares of the company.

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